Sunday, November 3, 2019
Analysis of Wal-Mart Organization - Essay Example These numbers were hardly predictable from Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s humble beginnings in 1962, when it was founded by entrepreneur Sam Walton. Walton opened a store called the Wal-Mart Discount City in Rogers, Arkansas (Frank, 2006). However, within five years, the company opened up an additional 23 stores throughout the state of Arkansas. By 1968, the stores had moved out of state to Missouri and Oklahoma. From there, Walton incorporated his business as Wal-Mart Stores, which still serves as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s namesake, and in 1970, the company went public (Frank, 2006). Despite Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s tremendous growth since its inception in Rogers, Arkansas, the company maintains that it is committed to the same values and purpose that Sam Walton believed in when he opened his first location. Wal-Mart claims to abide by WaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s credo, which is, Ã¢â¬Å"If we work together, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll lower the cost of living for everyoneÃ¢â¬ ¦ weÃ¢â¬â¢ll give the world an opportunity to see what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to save and have a better lifeÃ¢â¬ (Walmart). This focus on lowering the cost of living for all people, with equal economic access to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products as a means to improving the quality of life represents a significant part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. Ã¢â¬Å"Saving people money to help them live better was the goal that Sam Walton envisioned when he opened the doors to the first WalmartÃ¢â¬ (Walmart). ... Food prices are nearly 14% lower in markets where Wal-Mart competes, which means that it is employing its cost leadership in a way that is detrimental to other food suppliers who cannot meet the price offerings of Wal-Mart. Because Wal-Mart is special in its ability to use its large buying power to negotiate deals and acquire cheaply-produced goods from foreign countries, its cost leadership is a core competency. Wal-Mart owns a sizable 30% of the consumer staples market in the United States (Hwang, 2003). Another core competency of Wal-Mart is its use of information technology in support of its international logistics system (Marketing Teacher, 2011). Wal-Mart is special because, for the most part, it is the only multinational retailer based out of the United States. In order to manage the efficient allocation of resources within the organization, Wal-Mart recognizes the need to supply its leaders with the right information in order to make competent decisions. By leveraging informa tion technology, it can measure how individual products perform in different countries with a single glance. This technology also adds value to the process of procurement, which is the process of obtaining goods and services from preparation and processing of a requisition through to receipt and approval of the invoice for payment. In terms of weaknesses, Wal-Mart is a very broad company with a wide variety of interests throughout a vast number of small community markets. Within those stores, Wal-Mart offers a wide range of products, which includes groceries, car services, sports equipment, and so on. Despite providing convenience to its customers, this broadness holds
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Economics of Education & Financing Education Adequately - Essay Example This paper explores the evidences that increasing social problems may lead to large increases in the annual cost of public elementary and secondary education in Fentress County Tennessee. The paper also determines the current expenditures per pupil in Fentress County, three surrounding counties, and the state per pupil expenditure average. Response to question one. Increasing social problems could cause massive increases in the annual cost of public secondary and elementary education. Social problem involves social issues that may plague the system of education. For example, emotional, ethical, gender, economic, and cultural issues are some of the social problems in education. The major effect of these problems on education has always been to increasing the cost of education (Brimley, Rulon, Garfield, et.al. 2008). For instance, economic issues increase the cost of education by making the government give out financial support to families with low income, give scholarships, and run th e education programs. This leads to a high cost of maintaining education in the secondary and elementary levels of education. According to the Fentress County Tennessee, the average cost of educating a child placed in a public school was more than six thousand dollars ($7,436) for one year (Brimley, Rulon, Garfield, et.al. 2008). Of this annual amount, a huge percentage of funds are typically allocated to activities of teaching. This is an area where the effects of social problems are realized. The cost due to behavioral problems is approximately 65% or about $ 4,833. Even though, the other sections of the school like supervision and administration could also be affected by social problems, the annual figure of the teaching portion of education, in this case, was used in the calculation. As per a research conducted by the Public Agenda research group in Fentress County Tennessee, 45% of school teachers reported that they normally spend a significant part of their time to manage the behaviour of their classroom thus making them to spend a little time in teaching (Brimley, Rulon, Garfield, et.al. 2008). This implies that, for every ten teachers, four of them spent over 55% of their principal classroom time on dealing with social problems of the learners. In terms of finances, the impact cost of a statistic like this one is 55% of $4,833 which is equal to $ 2,658. This is the amount of finances that is wasted on the management of social issues for every child per year. A study conducted on a number of schools in Fentress County Tennessee, having different school size, reported a massive education cost due to managing social problems in the school (Brimley, Rulon, Garfield, et.al. 2008). From this study, a table (Table1) was drawn to display the cost impact of social problems on education. Table 1: Cost impact of social problems management in Fentress County District schools. School Size Cost impact of social problems management on education based on the percent o f time spent. 25% 30% 50% 250 $328,563 $394,275 $657,125 400 $525,700 $630,840 $1,051,400 500 $657,125 $788,550 $1,314,250 650 $854,263 $1,025,115 $1,708,525 800 $1,051,400 $1261,680 $2,102,800 1000 $1,314,250 $1,577,100 $2,628,500 The table (Table1) shows out the cost effect of managing the behaviour of students in the classroom. When observed keenly as a percent of the time lost out of approximately 180 days (a school year), the figures are disturbing. Number of school days lost due to social problems m
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Literature review including a research methodology, Objectives and research. Tobic (Internationalization) - Dissertation Example The University of Bradford is one organization that seeks to go the international way as a way of expanding its market share with the added advantage of increasing its profits among other benefits. However, there is a high risk associated with the internationalization of organizations evident in the number of organizations that have failed in the process. Some of the main challenges associated with internationalization is the complexity of the process of going international, the high costs involved and the complexity of managing internationalized entities. Objectives of the Study 1. To determine how feasible it is for the University of Bradford to internationalize 2. To determine the key issues that the University of Bradford will have to deal with in its internationalization 3. To establish the best strategy that the University of Bradford can adopt to successfully go through the internationalization process Research questions In achieving the objectives of this study, a number of q uestions will have to be answered. The following are the research questions for this project. 1. How feasible it is for the University of Bradford to internationalize? 2. What are the key issues that the University of Bradford will have to deal with in its internationalization process? 3. What strategies can the University of Bradford adopt in its bid to go through the internationalization process? 4. ... Reasons behind the Internationalization of Organizations Most economies thrive on the notion of imports and exports. Penetration into the foreign market is one of the major reasons why firms are venturing into internalization (Taylor, Walker and Beaverstock, 2002). In the 21st century, a lot of firms and businesses have been involved in international markets. Companies have been looking for ways to maximise their productivity and profitability by tapping into markets other the ones in their own home base of operations. There are different theories that have been formulated to explain the increase in international activities among different firms all across the world (Gankema, Snuif and Zwart, 2000). The absolute cost advantage is an internationalization theory that propagates the idea that institutions and firms should specialize in those products in which they have a sure advantage. This theory was popularised by Adam Smith and it implies that if a company can make a product without having to spend a lot in terms of costs per production unit (Welch and Welch, 1996). This view supports the idea that companies that have a comparative advantage do not have to have an absolute advantage to prosper in a market. Companies therefore internationalize so as to gain from comparative advantage (Taylor, Walker and Beaverstock, 2002). The prospects of new markets are another major driving force for internationalization. Internationalization opens up many opportunities for business, big and small. Advances in technology have led to the development of production techniques which ensure that companies can mass produce (Vahlne and Nordstrom, 1993). As a result, many of these companies have ventured into the international scene in search of new markets in which to sell
Monday, October 28, 2019
The Four Causes of Aristotle Essay Aristotle, being the first historian of philosophy, categorized his predecessors according to how theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve answered the central questions of the human mind Ã¢â¬â the question of the first principle of all things. It is otherwise known as the Four Causes. He defined science as knowledge through causes. This doctrine of causes is scattered in different Aristotelian treatises but have its highlight in his book Metaphysics. This principle of causality is an essential part of Aristotelian thought. In his mind, Aristotle argued that events happen for a cause which will explain its origin, end and the way it came to be. For him, Ã¢â¬Å"everything that comes to be is due to causes.Ã¢â¬ He criticized his predecessors for their not having clearly explained the why of this, that, and so on. Chance, mythology or fortuitous events are not sufficient enough to solve the problem of cosmology. These causes are divided into four distinct types. He developed this principle from the standpoint of being. For this reason, the basic Aristotelian division is between actual and potential causes, contrary to the traditional division made by the scholastics between intrinsic and extrinsic. As for the actual cause, there is the formal, efficient and final causes and for the potency only the material cause; in the traditional scholastic division, material and formal causes made up the intrinsic cause while the remaining two makes the extrinsic cause. Each of these causes can be shortly defined as follows: 1.Material Cause is the constitutive element from which something is made from. 2.Formal Cause means the form of something, Ã¢â¬Å"it is what determines its essence to be what it isÃ¢â¬ 3.Efficient Cause is the being who made that something. 4.Final Cause is that for what sake something exists, Ã¢â¬Å"it is what constitutes the perfection of the beingÃ¢â¬ . In other words, it is the purpose of that being. The final cause is the summation of all other causes; it is where every other cause can be founded. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËCause means (1) that from which, as immanent material, a thing comes into being, e.g., the bronze is the cause of the statue and the silver of the saucer, and so are the genera to which these things belong. (2) The form or pattern, i.e., the definition of the essence, and the genera which include this (e.g., the ratio 2:1 and number in general are causes of the octave), and the parts included in the definition. (3) That from which the change or the resting from change first begins; e.g., the adviser is a cause of action, and the father a cause of the child, and in general the maker of a cause of the thing made and the change-producing of the changing. (4) The end, i.e., that for the sake of which a thing is; e.g., health is the cause of walkingÃ¢â¬ As mentioned earlier, Aristotle classified earlier philosophers by what kind of cause is their philosophy. We can classify Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras and Empedocles in the material cause. These philosophers, though differing in opinion of the primary principle of all things, emphasized the constitutive element of everything. Thus, they are rightly to be numbered in the material cause. The water of Thales, the air of Anaximenes, fire of Heraclitus, the atoms of Leucippus and Democritus, the Homeomeries of Anaxagoras, the four elements of Empedocles and the apeiron of Anaximander (Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ he [Anaximander] said that the principleand the constitutive element of the things that exist is the apeiron. He was the one who first designated the material principle of all things by this nameÃ¢â¬ ) are all primary element of everything for these philosophers, may it be by some other cause or not. For the formal cause, we can only classify only three pre-Socratic thinkers, Pythagoras, Parmenides and Anaxagoras. By formal cause, we mean that it pertains to the form of everything. Let us try to briefly examine each of these philosophers: The Pythagoreans have thought that the first principle is Numbers; their idea of Numbers is different from ours. For them, numbers have resemblances from everything. Ã¢â¬Å"Musical harmony for example, could be reduced to a set of numerical relations. Natural phenomena followed an order e\which could also be measured numerically Ã¢â¬â the duration of the year, the seasons, the length of the day, etc.Ã¢â¬ Parmenides, on the other hand, thought of the Ã¢â¬Å"beingÃ¢â¬ as the principle of everything. Ã¢â¬Å"One statement alone expresses the road to follow: being isÃ¢â¬ . His being is univocal; it can only be apprehended by the intellect. He denied the existence of change, therefore, making his being as something permanent, unchangeable, immovable. It cannot cause something for it will mean to cause a change, thus, we cannot classify being as an efficient cause. Rather we classify it to the formal cause for his being underlies everything, it is actually in everything. Lastly, Anaxagoras, though numbered earlier among the material philosophers, can also be classified in the formal cause. Because of the multiplicity of substances, he concluded that the first principle (in his case his Homeomeries) must, in a way, embody all things in itself. We can also enumerate Anaxagoras and Empedocles in the efficient cause. Let us examine how this had happened. Alongside his Homeomeries, Anaxagoras added another principle, the Nous (Intelligence). It is important to bear in mind, that the Nous is separated from matter. It merely starts the cosmic movement from where everything starts to differentiate from one another. Its movement determines the diverse proportion of Homeomeries in each thing. Thus making reason Ã¢â¬Å"deus ex machinaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢The Intelligence ordains everything that is brought into being Ã¢â¬â those things that existed in the past and exist in the present and exist no longer, those that exist in the present and those that will exist in the future.Ã¢â¬ Empedocles is another philosopher with an efficient cause. Because of the influence of Eleatic philosophy, he is forced to search for another cause besides the material principle in order to salvage the world of phenomena. He put Love and Hate as the efficient cause that unites and separates the four elements. While love brings forth together, hate separates. There is a perpetual alteration of dominance between those two; this cycle dictates corruption and generation. Ã¢â¬Å"Things never cease to change, sometimes uniting with one another through Love; and at other times, separating themselves from one another through the divisiveness of DiscordÃ¢â¬ The final cause: the most important of all the causes. In this category we can classify the sophists and Socrates. They have put man as the measure and end of all things. The final cause is for man. Sophism ushered a new era in philosophy as a whole, this age turned to man for the first time. Everything belonged to man. Though sophism had been degenerated into Ã¢â¬Å"apparent wisdomÃ¢â¬ , with it still came the time where man has been the focus of philosophy. His end and his goodness is the final cause of everything. Protagoras, most famous of the sophists argued that man is the one who determines everything, even truth. This relativism of Protagoras is because he based his knowledge exclusively on senses which are constantly subjected to change. This can be summarized on his words in the introduction of On Truth: Ã¢â¬Å"Man is the measure of all things Ã¢â¬â things which exist insofar as they exist, things which do not exist insofar as they do not exist.Ã¢â¬ Socrates, the one who Ã¢â¬Å"called philosophy from heavenÃ¢â¬ ; is the foremost philosopher of the final cause. For him the most important thing is for the benefit of the human soul, ergo, knowing the good. For him the soul is the center of moral life. He identified virtue as knowledge, the mainspring of all other virtues. For him, only in ignorance does one commit sins. In Socratic thought, human dignity has been raised that all things are for the good of his soul. These four causes of Aristotle gave a very clear view of the improvement of ancient Greek Philosophy, from its coldest principle for all things to the warmest humanistic approach. I am in a position with Aristotle concerning these causes. As for me, the causes clearly demonstrate the history of Greek Philosophy from the pre-Socratics up to Socrates.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Plato and Aristotle Nearly all humans have the goal to live a virtuous and happy life. Two of the world most acknowledged philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, had their own views on this central issue. Plato supported the understanding view; he believed understanding is the key to living a virtuous life. Aristotle supported the habit and action view; he believed that individuals become virtuous by continuous moral actions. By and large both philosophers have a good standpoint; but in my judgment one has a stronger line of reasoning. Plato supports the view of understanding over custom and tradition. He believes that individuals should acquire the knowledge to understand something and then start performing the action. Plato says that once someone understands the good then he or she will do it; he says Ã¢â¬Å"...what we desire is always something that is goodÃ¢â¬ (pg.5). We can understand from this that Plato is saying individuals want to do good for themselves; we perform immoral deeds, because we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the understanding of the good. The lack of knowledge and understanding w...
Thursday, October 24, 2019
IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Leading BFSI Companies 2008 Life Insurance Corporation of India Yogakeshema, Jeevan Bima Marg, P. B. No. 19953, Mumbai Ã¢â¬â 400021, Maharashtra Tel: 91 22 66598547; Fax: 91 22 22817253; Email: [emailÃ protected] com; Website: www. licindia. com History Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) was formed in Sep 1956 after the Parliament of India passed the Life Insurance Corporation Act in Jun 1956.The company was created with the objective of spreading life insurance more widely, especially to reach all the insurable people in the rural areas and provide them with adequate financial cover at a reasonable cost. Apart from its corporate office, LIC had five zonal offices, 33 divisional offices and 212 branch offices in 1956. The nature of life insurance contracts being long-term coupled with the need to provide a variety of services during the term of the policy, LIC re-organised itself by opening a number of new branch offices.After its re-organisation, servicing functions were transferred to branches which were converted to accounting units. other cities. LIC has also launched Satellite Sampark offices in order to provide easy access to its policy holders. The company had 340 such offices as on Mar 2008. LIC also provides housing finance through LICHFL. It has also formed an asset management company known as LICMF AMC. The corporation has also extended its operations to the international arena; through various JVs and subsidiaries it operates in as many as nine countries.T S Vijayan Chairman D&B D-U-N-SÃ ® 65-005-6716 IRDA Registration No Business Segment Life Insurance Key Information (As on Mar 2007) Total Income (Rs mn) NPE (Rs mn) Policy Holders Branches Employees Agents No of Policies Issued No of Claims Received No of Claims Settled Solvency Ratio (%) Management Chairman T S Vijayan Managing Directors D K Mehrotra Thomas Mathew T A K Dasgupta 1,744,405. 7 1,277,822. 6 212. 6 2,048 113,710 1,103,047 38,229,292 13,257,345 13,258,205 1 . 50 512 Products & ServicesLIC offers a wide array of insurance products to its customers such as insurance plans, pension plans, unit-linked plans, special plans and group scheme. During FY08, the company introduced certain new products such as Profit Plus, Fortune Plus, Jeevan Akshay, Jeevan Amrit & Amulya Jeevan. As of Mar 2007, total number of agents of the company stood at 1. 1 mn while the total number of policies issued was 38. 2 mn. The premium earned by the company reported a growth of 41% in FY07 when compared to the previous year.During the year, the company insured 34. 28 mn individuals for the first time, taking the ratio of first insurance to total business to 89. 61% for number of policies. Operations As on Mar 2008, LIC had 2,048 fully computerised branch offices, 109 divisional offices, eight zonal offices apart from its corporate office. LICÃ¢â¬â¢s network connects all the branches through wide area network. The company also has tie-ups with certain banks and se rvice providers to offer on-line premium collection facility in select cities.Besides, ECS and ATM premium payment facility to its customers, the company has also commissioned IVRS and information centres at Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, New Delhi, Pune, amongst Key Highlights Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ 97. 11%ofmaturityclaimsaresettledonorbeforetheduedate. InFY08,LIChassettledover13. 9mnclaims,amountingtoRs372. 06bn. ThetotallifefundofLICstoodatRs6866. 16bnasonMar31,2008. ThetotalnumberofIn-Forcepolicieswasover233mnasonMar31,2008. AsonMar31,2008,LICÃ¢â¬â¢stotalassetsvaluedatRs8038. 2bn. TotalincomeincreasedtoRs2063. 6bnbytheendofFY08,showingagrowth rate of 18. 3%. 137
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
My employment in the field of education may be coincidental but is probably attributable to my quest for learning and advancing knowledge in all aspects of my life. Additionally, I believe in the notion that no matter what a businessmanÃ¢â¬â¢s product is, this person is definitely in the education business.To succeed, the individual must constantly educate his customers on the many advantages of doing business with him, train them on how to use the product efficiently as well as effectively and therefore make never-ending improvement in their lives. It is against this background that I would wish to apply for an admission to University of Colorado to pursue a Certificate in Leadership Studies.My decision to settle for this certificate program was mainly informed by several reasons. Firstly, a teacher is definitely a leader and the program would help me expand my knowledge in leadership skills. This knowledge, I believe, would be helpful in my Junior Reserve OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s Trainin g Corps (JROTC) classes.The certificate would complement the values of citizenship, service to my country, personal responsibility as well as accomplishments, the very virtues that the JROTC program wishes to instill into every American through teaching which is my career.Additionally, I believe in the process of continuous evaluation, improving on my weak areas and carrying on the desirable virtues for the sake of my country and humanity at large, which I in turn pass over to my students. With the dynamic nature of education, I take it as my responsibility to be abreast with the most current knowledge.Leadership Studies and other related courses such as Conflict Resolution Management are therefore becoming increasingly important, more so for those in social responsibilities. In this bid, the University of ColoradoÃ¢â¬â¢s Certificate Program would make me a better teacher by equipping me with more knowledge and leadership skills that are inclined towards my career as a teacher.Tho ugh I have a degree in Business Administration, I must say that the future looks bright although I have not reached the epic. I would wish to purse a Masters in Education after this certificate. This would career-wise place me in a better position and I would even be better equipped to serve humanity at a position which is much higher.In addition, it would ensure an increased remuneration and package that would transform both to my personal growth as well as that of my family. As such, a certificate in Leadership Studies would form a good foundation for a Masters as all are inclined towards the field of education and would also be part of my greater continuous improvement personal policy.My decision for a certificate in Leadership Studies at Colorado University was further informed by a critical analysis based on accruing costs and benefits. Apart from the great reputation that the University of Colorado holds in the world of Junior Reserve OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s Training Corps, I was loo king a local university that could offer me a Certificate that carries international recognition, and at a pocket friendly price.Whether on distance learning mode or otherwise, to me, Colorado university appeared as the most viable option, more so for a veteran like me.Moreover, I consider education as the asset that does not build dreams but also ensures their realization. It is the asset that that rekindles hope, as through it, a bright future is foreseen. Irrespective of age, education turns a weak person to an energetic one while confidence within an individual is built through educational accomplishments. Through education, one not only understands themselves but also discovers their potential, grabs opportunities and is therefore able to pursue success into its greatest heights.Ã As a conclusion, I wish to make a worthy contribution to my life and humanity at large, and only through education can I secure the chance to do so. It also bears noting that through this certificat e, I wish to open up my mind and expand my horizons in all aspects, and this remains my objective as I place my application for consideration into admission to Colorado University.